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The physiology of basic exercise within education

In all physical-sports activities it is required to make exercise physiology efforts that will depend on the level of physical condition of the subject, in this way, the biological basis for the development of these Basic Physical Capacities will be the adaptation of the organism to the effort made , In this way, with an adequate motor enrichment of the student, within the educational framework, or training plan, where appropriate, it will be possible to increase the level of physical condition. 

For this reason, in this document the study of the adaptation of the organism to physical effort will be developed. to better understand the influence that laws that try to explain adaptation phenomena in the development of physical condition may have for students of Compulsory Secondary Education, and in this way, to be able to design appropriate activities that contribute to the development of the physical condition. 

Thus, we are faced with a key issue since with its treatment we will contribute to a better understanding and understanding on the part of the students of the Block of contents of physical condition and health, and how its study can lead us to an improvement in health and quality of life, seeking practical application in everyday life; attending to the needs, characteristics and interests of said students.

The adaptation of the body to physical effort

The development of physical condition consists of the improvement of basic physical qualities to an optimal level that allows physical-sports activities. In fact, the athlete improves because the training adapts more and more to the effort that has to be made, that is, the anatomical-functional systems of the subject perform physical exercise more effectively: at the same effort, less energy expenditure. 

In relation to the above, we will define the adaptation as the set of modifications carried out by individual biological systems as a consequence of changes in the external or internal conditions of the organism, and that translates into a lasting, structural or functional change, which follows training, and enables the organism to respond more easily to exercise stimuli. expresses himself in the same terms when defining it as the ability of living beings to maintain a constant balance of their functions, thanks to the functional modification that occurs in each of their organs and systems, due to the demands of the stimuli on their functions.

Repercussions for the development of physical condition

Transcend health Physiotherapist newcastle One of the most serious mistakes is considering the child as a small adult, and wanting to apply the training of competitive athletes simply by reducing the loads. It is essential to know that the characteristics of children are different from those of adults and, therefore, their training must have substantial differences. Although the child also responds to the effort through the different laws of adaptation seen above, there are a series of characteristics of its evolutionary moment with respect to the development of physical condition that must be taken into account:

  • The greater number of pulsations in children implies that their anaerobic threshold is proportionally increased, thus, 150-170 ppm must be considered within aerobic work.
  • The child satisfies his energy demands in long-distance aerobic tests, and only at the end will he weakly resort to anaerobic glycolysis, which implies a very high anaerobic threshold.
  • The ATP content is the same in adolescents as in adults, however, CP has a lower rate of use than in adults and it is possible that its concentration was also lower.
  • The adolescent has less gestural economy, as a consequence of a total lack of coordination; therefore, it will present a higher metabolic cost.
  • During development, the adolescent can see their growth plates damaged.
  • Prepubertal girls have been shown to adapt to exertion by delaying the onset of the first period or menarche. This occurs when they are subjected to very intense efforts, being observed cases in athletes of rhythmic gymnastics and dancers.

Energy processes and physical activity

Energy sources

The human body, to carry out any type of activity, and even in the maintenance of basal metabolism, needs energy, which is obtained mainly through ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate), that is, the ATP molecule is the body's energy source by excellence. This nucleotide is composed of three high-energy phosphate bonds that are released when one of the bonds breaks: spending three ATP molecules in muscle contraction (2) - relaxation (1), in addition, energy is also required for the maintenance of the resting potential and for the basal metabolism of the muscle cell. 

Now, the ATP reserves in the muscle only allow muscle contractions to be carried out for a very short time, so we must resynthesize ATP through other sources in order to maintain continued muscle work. immediate principles as we obtain the ATP (final product) and in this way the energy. Next, we will show the Immediate Principles of obtaining energy: ATP and CP or Phosphocreatine (Phosphate systems; which does not need resynthesis, the accumulated reserves that exist in the muscle are simply used); Carbohydrates; Lipids and Proteins , which are used as an energy source in extreme cases.

Physical activity and energy pathways

The energy performance of the exercise physiology is poor compared to modern machinery, although through regular training it can be increased. This comparison between the human engine and the combustion engine was described in detail by Astrand (1985). In this study, the energetic process of the organism is analyzed , understood as the set of chemical reactions that the nutrients undergo inside it.

To point out that, the anabolic phase is accompanied by the accumulation of energy, being stored in complex molecules that when required give rise to ATP; simpler molecule that, after its break in the catabolic phase, it will release the energy necessary for muscle contraction. Next, we are going to see the characteristics of the energy intake, both at rest and during exercise. 

At rest, fats supply 2/3 of the necessary energy; the rest comes from carbohydrates, always aerobically, although a small amount of lactic acid is produced (1.2 mmol / l), which does not accumulate. While during physical exercise, both pathways contribute to the production of ATP, and it will be the characteristics of the activity that stimulate, as a priority, one path or the other. In this way, we could establish the following classification of metabolic pathways based on their greater involvement or use during different physical activities:


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